Understanding the S0/T0/T1/E1 ISDN protocols and lines
important to present and educate reader on how works ISDN lines for IPBX usage. As the telecommunications world (POTS, PSTN, GSM, ISDN, ADSL) and the TCP/IP world are now merged into the networks we daily use, we see a great difference between the knowledge and education of people on the TCP/IP standards (widely used, massively understood and fine-tuned) and the telecommunications standards and namely the ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) interfaces used in PBX, IPBX or GSM networks (E1 lines usually as used in OpenBSC project).
The ISDN line is a circuit-switched telephone network system implemented on ordinary telephony copper wires on the PSTN/POTS network to carry digital data and digital voice. The line interface is a four-wire interface and has separated transmitter and receiver with configurable behaviour. Every line can be switched either into S/T (four wires - double pair) or Up (two wires - single pair) mode separately. R, S/T and U(or Up) mode are named like this by the ITU after their current order on the ISDN hook-up.
The standard ISDN line/hookup architecture looks like:
TE: Terminal Equipment
TA: Terminal Adapter
NT: Network Terminator
S/T: Usually using 4-wires (2 pairs)
U: Usually using 2-wires (1 pair)
This overview architecture represents the standardized view of and ISDN architecture. Operators either provide U interfaces (2-wire long distance; the variants for interconnection to a public network are called U0 and Uk0) or S/T interfaces (this is typically a by-country alternative). In the latter case, a Network Termination owned by the operator is typically installed in the customer premises because the S/T bus is limited to a few hundred meters. If the operator provides U interfaces, the customer can still connect its own Network Termination and use an S/T interface behind it, or alternatively directly connect an equipment that supports U interfaces. For private direct ISDN connections up to a few kilometers, the 2 wire Up (Up0/UpN) interface also exists.
The Universal ISDN port is developed according to the ITU-T.430 and ETSI TBR 003 standards. It consists of the receive and transmit data pathes with a clock processing unit each, the clock distribution unit. The block diagram for a standard ISDN port module looks like:
TE Mode: Terminal Equipment mode, the TE is always taken as synchronisation source for ISDN applications (like the CLK is delivered from the Central Office Switch).
NT Mode: Network Terminator mode, the NT mode 192kHz bit clock and the 8kHz frame clock are derived from FSYNC.
The ISDN line port is based on 3 layers following different standards:
•Layer 1: ITU-T I.430
•Layer 2: ITU-T Q.920, ITU-T Q.921
•Layer 3: ITU-T Q.930 and ITU-T Q.931
At the layer 1, the line is based on the BRI (Basic Rate Interface) which delivers 144kbits/s (for S/T mode) broken into two 64kbits/s B (Bearer) channel for data and one 16kbits/s D (Delta) channel for signaling. The overhead is then added to the 144kbits/s (for a total of 196kbits/s) due to Frame Synchronization, Echo Channel (echo of the D-channel received in NT mode to detect collision on the TX for the D-channel when the S/T bus is shared) and Electrical Balancing bits. BRI are popular in Europe and Japan. The B-channel uses a standard 64 kbit/s datarate voice channel of 8 bits sampled at 8 kHz with G.711 encoding. B-Channels can also be used to carry data, since they are nothing more than digital channels. T0 (or S0) refers then to a BRI ISDN line provided by the carrier to connect the IPBX to the public network.
The raw interface available with BRI is called T0 (in Europe). Some ISDN carriers provide S0 interface (like the Duo/Itoo service in France for several end-devices that can communicate between each other).In France, the "Numeris" service provides a TNR (Terminaison Numerique de Reseau with device such as the Sagem TNR IPS 4G) end-device that does the conversion between the U interface and the T interface. The TNA (Terminaison Numerique d'Abonne) does the conversion between the T interface and the S interface. In most countries, except North-America, the carrier provides the TNR end-device and the TNA device is provided by the end-user customer (usually the PBX interface).
PRI (Primary Rate Interface) are more popular in North American ISDN carriers,
In Europe we see PRI E1 lines carrying 30 B-channels and 1 D-channel (2048 kbits/s)
In North-America, we see PRI T1 lines carrying 23 B-channels and 1 D-channel (1544 kbits/s).
Japan also has PRI J1 lines similar to T1 lines with 23-B+1-D.
The ISDN controller chip on the hardware will be connected to the CPU through two buses (SPI bus to control the chip and transmit D-channel from the CPU and the PCM (also named TDM bus) bus to transmit D-channels data with the ISDN lines). The number of simultaneous calls then had to be calculated with the choice of the ISDN capability and the codec used on those ones.
This blog post aims at giving an overview of the ISDN interface used on the IPBX and namely in the XiVO Hardware in order to understand the hardware project as well as the protocols used into XiVo Hardware.
Annexes to the article:
More acronyms:LAP-D: Link Access Procedure on the D-channel
HDLC: High-level Data-Link Control
TNR (France): Terminaison Numérique de Réseau
TNA (france):Terminaison Numérique d'Abonné
CSMA-CR: Carrier Sense Multiple Acess-Contention Resolution
TEI: Terminal Endpoint Identifier
SAPI: Service Access Point Identifier
CEPI: Connection EndPoint Identifier
Multiplexing value of 64kbits/s-channels:T0: 2B+1DEurope: 2048kbits/s (30), 8448kbits/s (120), 34 368kbits/s (480), 139 264kbits/s (1960)North-America: 1544kbits/s (24), 6312kbits/s (96), 44 736kbits/s (1584)
HDLC Frames Format:
F (Flag) | Ad (Adresses) | C (Controle) | CALL REQUEST | FCS (Frame Controle Sequence) | F(Flag) |